Despre Moise şi calităţile şefilor din administraţia publică: law-abiding, truthful, not driven by material gain
Hoftede, un teoretician al managementului prezintă un caz care poate fi considerat începutul consultanței în management:
“A group of refugees, about then thousand strong, follow their charismatic leader in search for a safe haven. A powerful friend sends a consultant to help them. The consultant notices that the leader tries to handle all problems and conflicts of people himself. People queue up before his office; because he is overworked, he cannot handle all the business. So the consultant has a private talk with he leader and tells him to structure his organization by delegating authority: to nominate able men as managers of thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens. Candidates should be selected not only on their leadership abilities but also on their character: they should be law-abiding, truthful, not driven by material gain. The management structure should resolve all daily issues at the lowest possible level; only the big and difficult issues should be brought before the leader. He should focus on strategy – on dealing with the supreme authority, on establishing new rules and laws and teaching these to the people, on showing them the way to go and the work to be done. The case states that the leader listens to the consultant an carries out the re-organization which is a success, and the consultant returns home.
Asian readers think that this is a reference to the Long March of Chairman Mao. The refugees in this case, however were Israelites and their leader was Moses, and he led them from Egypt to Israel. The Supreme Authority was God, and the consultant Jethro, was Moses’ father-in-law a fact which definitely helped in making Moses listen to him. The case is codified in the book Exodus of the Old Testament of Bible (Exodus 18: 13-27). It is one of the oldest source books of western civilization, recognized by Judaism, Christianity and Islam alike. The migration is supposed to have taken place in the 12th century BC, over 3,000 years ago… Many problems in modern management are not so modern at all; they are basic human dilemmas, and every generation anew has had to cope with them”.
(from Hoftede, Geert, 1999, Problems Remain, But Theories Will Change: The Universal and the Specific in 21st Century Global Management, Organizational Dynamics, summer edition, 34-44, p. 34-35)
13 The next day Moses took his seat to serve as judge for the people, and they stood around him from morning till evening.
14 When his father-in-law saw all that Moses was doing for the people, he said, “What is this you are doing for the people? Why do you alone sit as judge, while all these people stand around you from morning till evening?”
15 Moses answered him, “Because the people come to me to seek God’s will.
16 Whenever they have a dispute, it is brought to me, and I decide between the parties and inform them of God’s decrees and laws.”
17 Moses’ father-in-law replied, “What you are doing is not good.
18 You and these people who come to you will only wear yourselves out. The work is too heavy for you; you cannot handle it alone.
19 Listen now to me and I will give you some advice, and may God be with you. You must be the people’s representative before God and bring their disputes to him.
20 Teach them the decrees and laws, and show them the way to live and the duties they are to perform.
21 But select capable men from all the people – men who fearGod, trustworthy men who hate dishonest gain – and appoint them as officials over thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens.
22 Have them serve as judges for the people at all times, but have them bring every difficult case to you; the simple cases they can decide themselves. That will make your load lighter, because they will share it with you.
23 If you do this and God so commands, you will be able to stand the strain, and all these people will go home satisfied.”
24 Moses listened to his father-in-law and did everything he said.
25 He chose capable men from all Israel and made them leaders of the people, officials over thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens.
26 They served as judges for the people at all times. The difficult cases they brought to Moses, but the simple ones they decided themselves.
27 Then Moses sent his father-in-law on his way, and Jethro returned to his own country.
Exodul 18: 13-27 – varianta în română
13 A doua zi, Moise s-a așezat să judece poporul; şi poporul a stat înaintea lui de dimineața până seara.
14 Socrul lui Moise a văzut tot ce făcea el pentru popor, şi a zis: “Ce faci tu acolo cu poporul acela? De ce stai singur, şi tot poporul stă înaintea ta, de dimineața până seara?”
- Moise a răspuns socrului sau: “Poporul vine la mine ca să ceară sfat lui Dumnezeu.
- Când au vreo treabă, vin la mine; eu judec între ei şi fac cunoscut poruncile lui Dumnezeu şi legile Lui.”
17 Socrul lui Moise i-a zis: “Ce faci tu nu este bine.
18 Te istovești singur şi vei istovi şi poporul acesta, care este cu tine; căci lucrul este mai presus de puterile tale şi nu-l vei putea face singur.
19 Acum ascultă glasul meu; am să-ţi dau un sfat, şi Dumnezeu va fi cu tine! Fii tălmaciul poporului înaintea lui Dumnezeu şi du pricinile înaintea lui Dumnezeu.
20 Învață-i poruncile şi legile; si arată-le calea pe care trebuie s-o urmeze şi ce trebuie să facă.
21 Alege din tot poporul oameni destoinici, temători de Dumnezeu, oameni de încredere, vrăjmași ai lăcomiei; pune-i peste popor drept căpetenii peste o mie, căpetenii peste o sută, căpetenii peste cincizeci şi căpetenii peste zece.
22 Ei să judece poporul în tot timpul; să aducă înaintea ta toate pricinile însemnate, iar pricinile cele mai mici să le judece ei înșiși. În felul acesta iți vei ușura sarcina, căci o vor purta şi ei împreună cu tine.
23 Dacă vei face lucrul acesta şi dacă Dumnezeu îţi va porunci așa, vei putea face faţă lucrurilor, şi tot poporul acesta va ajunge fericit la locul lui.”
24 Moise a ascultat sfatul socrului sau şi a făcut tot ce spusese el.
25 Moise a ales oameni destoinici din tot Israelul şi i-a pus căpetenii ale poporului, căpetenii peste o mie, căpetenii peste o sută, căpetenii peste cincizeci şi căpetenii peste zece.
26 Ei judecau poporul în tot timpul; aduceau înaintea lui Moise pricinile grele, iar toate pricinile mici le judecau ei înșiși.
27 Apoi Moise a trimis pe socrul sau în tara lui.